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«Понятийная карта» на уроках обществознания

Требования к результатам обучения и освоения содержания курса «Обществознания» в ФГОС указывают на необходимость достижения учащимися метапредметных и предметных результатов, которые включают в себя знания, умения и навыки, сформированные в процессе работы над понятийным аппаратом курса. Они подразумевают знание ряда ключевых понятий, определение сущностных характеристик объекта, выбор верных критериев для сравнения, сопоставления и оценки объекта, исследование реальных связей и зависимостей между объектами, использование элементов причинно-следственного анализа.

Требования к результатам обучения и освоения содержания курса «Обществознания» в ФГОС указывают на необходимость достижения учащимися метапредметных и предметных результатов, которые включают в себя знания, умения и навыки, сформированные в процессе работы над понятийным аппаратом курса. Они подразумевают знание ряда ключевых понятий, определение сущностных характеристик объекта, выбор верных критериев для сравнения, сопоставления и оценки объекта, исследование реальных связей и зависимостей между объектами, использование элементов причинно-следственного анализа.

Поэтому особую актуальность приобретает работа педагога над формированием и развитием у обучающегося понятийного мышления – одного из видов мышления, который характеризуется использованием понятий и логических конструкций. Понятие – итог мыслительного процесса, и в то же время начало дальнейшего процесса мышления, позволяющего делать логические умозаключения. Осмысление понятий происходит посредством включения новых представлений  в различную социальную среду, путем установления причинно-следственных связей и закономерностей.

При введении нового понятия обучающиеся следуют определенному алгоритму (см. Приложение). Проверяются умения определять существенные признаки понятий, устанавливать причинно-следственные связи. На этапе активизации знаний, учащиеся конструируют понятия по предложенной схеме, выстраивают логические схемы, самостоятельно разрабатывают новый алгоритм. На этапе закрепления знаний «понятийные карты» можно использовать для выполнения заданий 25–29 в вариантах ЕГЭ по обществознанию.

Ожидаемые результаты: развитие метапредметных компетентностей обучающихся, повышение уровня общей культуры обучающихся, развитие понятийного мышления, повышение уровня подготовки учащихся к сдаче экзаменов и подготовки к предметным олимпиадам.

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