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Использование набора счетного материала в образовательной деятельности дошкольников

Набор счетного материала в виде соединяющихся между собой кубиков определяется перечнем учебного оборудования как оборудования для познавательно-исследовательской деятельности.
Набор счетного материала можно считать универсальным средством для решения многих учебных задач, среди которых можно выделить следующие: формирование сенсорных эталонов, развитие математических представлений, развитие творческого мышления, совершенствование мелкой моторики рук.

Кокарева Елена Васильевна,
учитель-дефектолог
ГБОУ «Школа № 2097» г. Москвы,
Пивоварова Светлана Николаевна,
учитель-логопед
ГБОУ «Школа № 2097» г. Москвы,
7342690@mail.ru

Набор счетного материала в виде соединяющихся между собой кубиков определяется перечнем учебного оборудования как оборудования для познавательно-исследовательской деятельности.

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Удачная цветовая гамма кубиков набора позволяет выполнять задания по звуковому и звуко-буквенному анализу при подготовке к обучению грамоте, развивать фонематический слух и фонематическое восприятие, лежащие в основе безошибочного усвоения письма и чтения в процессе школьного обучения.

Фонематическое восприятие – это способность различать фонемы и определять звуковой состав слова. Сколько слогов в слове «кот»? Сколько в нем звуков? Какой согласный звук стоит в конце слова? Какой гласный звук в середине слова? Именно фонематическое восприятие помогает ответить на эти вопросы.

Только что дети играли, строили замки, рыцарей из кубиков. И вот, эти кубики обозначают звуки. Красные – гласные, синие и зеленые – согласные. Синие – согласные  твердые, зеленые – согласные мягкие. Соединили несколько кубиков  получился  слог, еще  добавили – слово. Посчитали количество звуков, разделили  слово на  части – слоги, поняли, сколько в слове слогов. Ребенок продолжает играть, и сложные понятия становятся для него более доступными. Включается непроизвольное внимание, когда сама ситуация интересна. Из множества кубиков мы можем взять такие, которые обозначают звуки (красные, синие, зеленые).

Назовем их так: А, У, И, О, Ы, Э; П, Т, М, К, Н, Р, С и т.д.; М´, П´, К´, Т´, Й, Ч и т.д.

Фото 1

Задания для звукового анализа слогов

Напомним, что слог  минимальная произносительная единица речи, состоящая из одного или нескольких звуков, которые образуют тесное фонетическое единство. Открытый слог заканчивается гласным, закрытый  согласным звуком.

Предлагаем проанализировать обратный закрытый слог «ам» и с помощью кубиков набора выложить его схему. В слоге «ам» есть два звука: первый – гласный звук «а», второй – согласный твердый «м».  Схема слога «ам» выглядит следующим образом:

Аналогично можно проанализировать разные по звуконаполняемости слоги. Из предложенных кубиков составим схемы слогов разного типа. Выкладываем варианты слогов, используя разного цвета кубики.

Приведем примеры звукового анализа слогов:

Слоги для звукового анализа

Схема слогов

УП, ИР, АС, ОН, ЭХ, ЫМ и т.д.

КО, ТУ, ТЫ, МА, НО, СЭ и т.д.

МИ, ПЕ, РЁ, СЯ, ЛЮ и т.д.

АЧ˟, ОЙ, УЩ, ИТЬ˟˟и т.д.

˟ – звуки Ч, Щ, Й, всегда мягкие согласные;

˟˟  – напомним, что Ь звука не обозначает и используется как показатель мягкости предыдущего согласного.

КРЫ, ПЛО, ФЛА, ПРУ и т.д.

АСТ, ОРТ, УМН, ИШТ  и т.д.

ПРИ, ДРЁ, КРЯ, ШЛИ и т.д.

 

Приведем варианты заданий звукового анализа односложных слов:

Слово для звукового анализа Схема слова

КОТ, МАК, ДЫМ, ЖУК, ЛАК, ШИП˟, БАК и т.д.

˟   напомним, что звуки Ш, Ж, Ц  всегда твердые.

КИТ, ЛЁД, НИЗ, ЧАС, ВЕК, ЛЮК, РЯД и т.д.

ТЕНЬ, ТЮЛЬ, ЛЕЩ, ВЕЩЬ, ЛИТЬ, ПЯТЬ и т.д.

СТОП, ТРОН, СТАН, ГРУЗ, ШТЫК и т.д.

ХРИП, ПРИЗ, КРЕП, КЛЁН, КЛЮВ и т.д.

КУСТ, МОСТ,  КАДР, БАНТ и т.д.

ВРАЧ, ГРАЧ, ПЛАЩ, КРАЙ и т.д.

ФРУКТ, ХРУСТ и т.д.

 

Аналогично можно проанализировать слова, разные по своей слоговой структуре и звуконаполняемости. Приведем примеры двусложных слов с открытым и закрытыми слогами:

Слово для звукового анализа Схема слова

МАМА, РУКА, ДОМА,

ШИНА*, ЦЕНА и т.д.

*  звуки Ш, Ж, Ц  всегда твердые согласные.

КИНО, ПИШУ, ЛЕТО, ПЕНА и т.д.

ТЕНИ, РЕКИ, ЛЮКИ и т.д.

УТКА, ОКНА, ОРДА, УТРО и т.д.

ПОЭТ, ПАУК, ДУЭТ и т.д.

БАНКА, КОШКА, РАМКА, МЫШКА, ШУБКА и т.д.

БАНАН, КАБАН, ТОПОР,

РУКАВ и т.д.

В данной статье авторами были подробно представлены схемы звукового анализа слов, наиболее доступных по слоговой структуре.

Работа над слоговым составом слова и его звуконаполняемостью особенно важна для учителей-логопедов. Ведь по типу нарушений слоговой структуры слова можно диагностировать уровень речевого развития ребенка.

Успешное овладение навыком звукового анализа в дошкольном возрасте позволяет ребенку выполнять задания по фонетическому разбору на школьной ступени образования. Ведь слова для звуко-буквенного анализа представлены в учебниках по русскому языку вплоть до 11 класса.

В видеофильме «Учебное оборудование. Набор счетного материала», созданном в Городском методическом центре Департамента образования города Москвы, представлен мастер-класс по обучению педагога навыкам использования набора счетного материала в виде соединяющихся между собой кубиков на занятиях по подготовке к обучению грамоте.

Фото 2

Предложенный материал может быть использован логопедами при проведении занятий, родителями  для самостоятельных занятий с детьми, воспитателями дошкольных образовательных учреждений – при проведении занятий по формированию звуковой культуры речи и подготовке дошкольников к обучению грамоте.

По QR-коду и мобильному приложению Вы сможете просмотреть, как в интересной и необычной форме можно использовать набор счетного материала в образовательной деятельности дошкольников.

Фото 3

Вы также можете ознакомиться с фильмом, перейдя по прямой ссылке.

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